If Sequestration Happens, What's Getting the Ax?
Flight delays, furloughs, military cuts and more.
President Obama has been warning that deep cuts triggered by sequestration could be devastating for the military and other government programs. But many Republicans, determined to see a reduction in federal spending, show no sign of wanting to cut a deal with the president to avoid the sequester.
Since the defense sector would see a large cut in its funding, several lawmakers and former officials have argued that it would weaken the standing of the United States on the world stage, empowering countries who threaten U.S. national security. Dov Zakheim, who served in several Defense Department posts in Republican administrations since the Reagan era, said the reductions could hinder the modernization of U.S. forces, among other impacts.
“What kind of message does that send to the Iranians or the Chinese or our allies?” Zakheim said. “There’s a real issue of American credibility. Most people around the world have no idea what the sequester is about. They can’t understand it.”
Here are some of the programs that would be pared as part of the sequester, according to a report by the White House Office of Management and Budget and letters from administration officials:
Air Travel: An estimated $619 million would be cut from the operations and facilities and equipment accounts of the Federal Aviation Administration, according to a report by House Appropriations Committee Democrats. This could mean major flight delays and an economic hit on the millions of people who depend on air travel every day.
- $483 million cut from the FAA operations budget, forcing all FAA employees to be furloughed for 11 days. On any given day, that could mean that 10 percent of the FAA’s 40,000 employees could be on furlough, resulting in longer delays, reduced air-traffic control, and losses in tourism. There will also be a hiring freeze.
- $136 million cut from the FAA’s facilities and equipment account, which helps maintain and modernize the air-traffic control infrastructure.
- Transportation Security Administration screeners would receive a seven-day furlough.
National Parks: In order to cut 5 percent of its budget, the National Park Service would have to slash $110 million, according to Coalition of National Park Service Retirees . The NPS has already begun to plan for sequestration by cutting park hours and visitor services in some of the nation’s leading national parks—from Yosemite to the Great Smokey Mountains. The group estimates that over a million visitors to the nation’s 12 leading national parks would experience the effects of the budget cuts, as several of the parks would have to close visitor centers, restrict campsites, limit train access, and delay spring road openings.
The Pentagon: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, along with Deputy Defense Secretary Ash Carter and Joint Chiefs Chairman Martin Dempsey, testified before the House Armed Services Committee last week, outlining the major cuts to the Pentagon. Here are some of the looming cuts:
- Most of the 800,000 civilian employees of the Defense Department will get unpaid leave, called a furlough, for up to 22 days, saving the Pentagon between $4 billion and $5 billion through the rest of the fiscal year.
- The Navy delayed the deployment of an aircraft carrier to the Persian Gulf, leaving only one in the region. The Navy also delayed the construction of one carrier and the overhaul of another.
- Seventy percent of ship maintenance in private shipyards and all aircraft maintenance for the latter of half of this fiscal year will be canceled, which amounts to 25 ships and 327 aircrafts.
- All ship and aircraft deployments to Africa have been canceled, along with canceling five of six ship deployments to South America.
- Across-the-board reduction in flight hours
- To meet its $17 billion shortfall, the Army has to curtail training for 80 percent of its ground forces, implement a hiring freeze and lay off 3,100 temporary and term employees
- Army base maintenance funds will be cut by 70 percent, while the Air Force will see a 30 percent cut of its weapons maintenance funds
- In the next fiscal year, 100,000 fewer soldiers will serve in the Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve
- More than 50 percent of Marine tactical units will be below minimum readiness levels
- TRICARE, which provides health care for active and retired military personnel and their dependents, would get cut by $3 billion for the remainder of the fiscal year.
- The Coast Guard would reduce its air and surface operations by 25 percent
Health Services: In a letter to Senate Appropriations Chairwoman Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius outlined the significant impact to the nation’s health services if sequestration goes into effect.
- $350 million cut from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- 109,000 fewer people in need of critical treatment might not get admitted to inpatient facilities
- 91,000 fewer people would receive substance abuse treatment
- 30,000 children without child care services
- 373,000 seriously ill adults and emotionally disturbed children would not receive treatment
- 4 million fewer meals would get home delivered to seniors
- 424,000 fewer HIV tests
- 540,000 fewer doses of vaccines for the flue, hepatitis and measles, among other diseases
- $1.6 billion cut for medical research at the National Institutes of Health
- $120 million cut in federal support for health centers, which could lead to 900,000 fewer patients served
- $168 million cut in embassy security
Humanitarian Aid: In his first major speech as secretary of State, John Kerry said the budget battles in Washington could hurt the U.S. effort to provide economic and political aid across the world. He underscored those concerns in a letter to Mikulski last week, saying the State Department would have to cut $2.6 billion for this fiscal year. In addition to potentially delaying visa requests and hindering peacekeeping efforts, here are some programs Kerry said could face cuts:
- $200 million cut in global humanitarian assistance, citing American efforts in Syria, the Horn of Africa and the Sahel
- $400 million cut in global health funding that fights AIDS and child hunger
- $500 million cut in security assistance accounts, which goes toward conflict prevention
- $300 million cut in military assistance to several nations around the world, including Israel, Jordan and Egypt
- $70 million cut from the operations budget of USAID
Border Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection employees could get furloughed for 12 to 14 days, which could lead to increased waiting times for border cross and cause flight delays. In addition, 5,000 border patrol agents and 2,750 customs officers would be cut.
Education: If sequestration goes into effect, $406 million would get cut in Head Start programs, resulting in 70,000 children losing access to the service. That would lead to the layoffs of 14,000 teachers, teacher assistants and staff who work in the program.
Disaster Relief: The Federal Emergency Management Agency would receive a $1 billion cut, while also losing over $120 million in homeland security grants.
Law Enforcement: The Department of Justice is being cut $1.6 billion, which will result in furloughs. Addition cuts to law enforcement areas, officials argue, could mean missteps in the judicial system.
- $550 million cut from the FBI
- $100 million cut from U.S. attorneys who prosecute criminal and civilian cases
- $338 million cut from the Federal Bureau of Prisons, which leads to furloughs and the suspended activation of two federal prisons
- 20 percent cut from drug testing and mental health treatment for criminals
- 30 percent cut in court security systems, which protect people in courtrooms
Additional Cuts: The National Science Foundation ($375 million), the Library of Congress, NASA ($950 million), the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Patent and Trademark office will also receive millions of dollars in cuts
Exemptions: Not all federal government programs are getting the ax. There are several mandatory spending programs that will not see any cuts, including Social Security, Medicaid, food stamps, veteran’s benefits and the Children’s Health Insurance Program.
Time Until Sequester: