The rates at which new military service members drop out of basic training are dropping across the services thanks to revamped training policies and programs that try to prepare enlistees for the rigors of basic training before they ship out. Each of the military services has reported increased use of delayed entry programs in recent years. These programs acclimate recruits, enhance their performance and decrease washouts. "We tell our recruiters to try to put enlistees into the delayed entry program to keep them better informed. They come ready to go to basic training," said Ed Castillo, a public affairs officer at the 37th Training Wing, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio. Defense officials keenly watch recruit attrition numbers, especially since the cost of recruiting new service members averages about $11,000 each--some $3,000 more than just a few years ago, said Navy Cmdr. Yvette BrownWahler, director for recruiting plans at the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Combined with an average cost of initial entry training at $35,000, the Defense Department's investment in military recruit accessions and training is enormous since more than 200,000 of America's youth are recruited for active military service each year, she added. Castillo noted that the Air Force's recruit attrition rate dropped from 8.8 percent in fiscal 1999 to 7.1 percent so far this year. The Air Force's delayed entry program, he said, is responsible for much of that success. The services report that most recruits fail to complete basic training for medical reasons, including injuries and previously undisclosed physical or mental conditions, and other performance-related issues. The Marine Corps' delayed entry program program has helped to reduce recruit attrition rates, said Maj. Rob Winchester, public affairs officer at Marine Corps Recruiting Command, Quantico, Va. Marine Corps officials say recruit attrition went from 15.5 percent in 1998 down to 11.7 percent thus far in 2001. "Our recruiters are spending the time with program participants to prepare them mentally and physically for recruit training. We start instilling our core values of honor, courage and commitment," Winchester said. The Defense Department also attributes the drop in recruit attrition rates to modified basic training programs across the services, coupled with "a renewed emphasis by drill instructors to imbue soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines with a positive attitude in preparing them to be a part of the service team," BrownWahler said. The Navy's recruit attrition rate in 1998 was about 17 percent; now it is about 14 percent, said Carl Ross, chief of staff of training at the Naval Training Center Great Lakes, north of Chicago. He credits the reduction to the effectiveness of the Navy delayed entry program, but also to revamped boot camp training policies. Navy recruits are evaluated for physical condition and classroom skills, such as reading comprehension, upon arrival at boot camp, Ross said. Those who need physical or academic preparation receive appropriate training before they tackle the general curriculum. Ross remarked that recruits in poor physical condition are often too tired to absorb lessons taught during classroom instruction. "The idea is to individualize the boot camp experience so most everyone can meet Navy standards," he said. "Primarily, it is working because we are not superimposing additional stress factors." Army officials said recruit attrition has dropped from 19.7 percent in 1998 to around 13.6 percent today. Recruits who successfully complete delayed entry programs have proven to be more likely to complete initial entry training, an Army Recruiting Command official said. Army officials also remarked that drill instructors want recruits to meet basic training standards and won't let recruits give up on themselves. The Army's New Start program, for example, provides additional training for recruits who fail to meet standards after remedial training.