Terminating or reducing funding for those programs would save more than $20 billion, White House officials say.
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Challenge will be balancing spending to spur job growth with efforts to keep the deficit in check.
The Pentagon should not get a pass as administration officials and lawmakers look for places to trim spending, Rep. John Boehner says.
Administration requests $548.9 billion for the department's base budget -- a 3.4 percent boost over fiscal 2010 enacted levels -- and $159.3 billion to pay for the wars.
Grants accounted for most of the spending and employment opportunities, but contracts also played a part, according to the latest statistics.
Budget includes agency-identified, high-priority performance goals for the first time.
Department proposal calls for significant budget cuts, but would boost investment in renewable energy, climate change initiatives.
Enterprise software licenses, turning off computers at night and eliminating paper check stubs among ways to try to make a dent in a record $1.6 trillion deficit.
Quadrennial assessment stresses need for more long-range strike aircraft and new technology, addresses military's relationship with the U.S. industrial base.
Move comes after the president in his State of the Union address proposed freezing nonsecurity discretionary spending for three years.