By Jackson Nickerson
August 23, 2013
Ask EIG is your chance to seek answers to public sector management challenges and conundrums. Submit your questions here.
I hear so much talk about performance metrics. The reality is, I’m not really sure what we’re talking about in these conversations. I do my job and try to ensure my team does theirs, but when it comes to measuring performance, I don’t know where to begin. What have you found to be the best, and most telling, metrics when trying to measure and help improve federal performance?
Much confusion exists around where and when to use performance metrics. All too often, performance metrics are used inappropriately to reward or punish, decreasing organizational performance instead of improving it. To help unpack the confusion and complexity surrounding performance metrics, please consider four types of jobs:
My hope from this four-part classification scheme is that you will realize that appropriate metrics will depend on the specific job and on what the jobholder does to produce a valuable output. No single metric or set of metrics can be used for all jobs.
Perhaps less clear is what these four types of jobs can tell us about how to use metrics to improve federal government performance. For instance, except in those instances where the utmost integrity is needed, research shows that A-Job positions, ones where performance can be completely specified, should be outsourced to non-governmental vendors employing their own workers. For such jobs, outsourcing typically leads to lower costs as well as greater adaptability because contractors that do not perform well can be readily dropped and others hired.
The same can be said for C-Jobs. Outsourcing the entire team typically leads to lower costs because of the ability to adapt to the changing circumstances of time and place. To understand why, imagine that the federal government hires a team of workers where the output of the team is accurately, precisely and objectively measured. If they perform below expectations, what can managers do to improve performance? Dismissing employees from the federal government requires much effort and takes a long time. Moving workers who do not fit well to new positions may simply pass the poor fit on to another manager. Such poor fits benefit neither the worker, who is unhappy and unlikely to excel, nor the organization, which suffers low performance and complaints that may contaminate the organization’s culture. By contrast, if the team is outsourced the government can much more easily adapt by switching vendors or the vendors can adapt by finding workers who are a better fit.
B- and D-Jobs offer a different story. Outsourcing these positions can lower performance, sometimes dramatically, as workers shift efforts to deliver what is measured and away from tasks that are poorly or not measured. Switching to another vendor fails to solve this problem. With employees, managers can provide oversight by assessing the effort (instead of outcome) workers put forward to deliver on both the measureable and difficult to measure tasks. Alternatively, ongoing education, establishing professional norms of behavior, and developing communities of practice, and other organizational and leadership levers can be used to encourage both high productivity and difficult to measure high quality.
Herein lies the critical rub. Those jobs (absent accuracy concerns) that should be within government (B and D-Jobs) are precisely the ones where managers, using performance metrics to drive productivity, can cause disastrous results. It is in these positions that the old saw “what gets measured gets done” lowers performance; focusing on performance metrics can cause workers to not provide the difficult to measure outcomes of high quality, collaboration, or innovation. As a result, overall performance for these situations will be lower, sometimes dramatically lower, than it could be.
If you don’t know where to begin developing performance metrics for you and your team then there may be a good reason for it. You and your team may have B- or D-Jobs. If so, use your leadership skills to focus on establishing high professional norms, use ongoing education to establish higher expectations of performance, and develop a community of practice that recognizes the importance of measurable as well as non-measurable dimensions of performance.
Duce a mente (may you lead by thinking),
By Jackson Nickerson
August 23, 2013